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LIDOCAINE INJECTION BP 2%
Lidocaine is a local anaesthetic of the amide group. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection BP is for use in infiltration anaesthesia, intravenous regional anaesthesia and nerve blocks.
Each ml contains:
Lidocaine Hydrochloride BP 20 mg
Propyl paraben BP 0.2 mg (As preservative)
Methyl paraben BP 1 mg (As preservative)
Water for injection BP q.s
The method of administration of lidocaine varies according to the procedure (infiltration anaesthesia, intravenous regional anaesthesia or nerve block).
The dosage should be adjusted according to the response of the patient and the site of administration. The lowest concentration and smallest dose producing the required effect should be given. The maximum dose for healthy adults should not exceed 200 mg [or 500mg if given in solutions containing adrenaline (epinephrine)].
Children and elderly or debilitated patients require smaller doses, commensurate with age & physical status.
In common with other local anaesthetics, adverse reactions to Lidocaine are rare and are usually the result of raised plasma concentrations due to accidental intravascular injection, excessive dosage or rapid absorption from highly vascular areas, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient.
Systemic toxicity mainly involves the central nervous system and/or the cardiovascular system.
Immune system disorders
Hypersensitivity reactions (allergic or anaphylactoid reactions, anaphylactic shock)
Nervous & Psychiatric disorders
Neurological signs of systemic toxicity include dizziness or light-headedness, nervousness, tremor, circumoral paraesthesia, tongue numbness, drowsiness, convulsions, coma.
Blurred vision, diplopia and transient amaurosis may be signs of lidocaine toxicity.
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Cardiac and vascular disorders
Cardiovascular reactions are depressant and may manifest as hypotension, bradycardia, myocardial depression, cardiac arrhythmias and possibly cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse.
Rash, urticaria, oedema (including angioedema, face oedema)
Blood and the lymphatic system disorders
As with other local anaesthetics, Lidocaine should be
used with caution in patients with epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, cardiac
conduction disturbances, congestive heart failure, bradycardia, severe shock,
impaired respiratory function or impaired renal function with a creatinine
clearance of less than 10mL/minute.